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Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of neurological disorders that affects how people move and maintain their balance. It is the most common motor disability in childhood, affecting 1 in 345 children in the United States. CP is not always preventable. However, it is sometimes the result of medical mistakes made during childbirth. In these cases, families may be able to pursue cerebral palsy financial support.

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About 70% of cerebral palsy cases result from a birth injury. Was your child one of them?

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What is cerebral palsy?

Cerebral palsy is a group of movement disorders that can cause problems with posture, manner of walking (gait), muscle tone, and coordination. Depending on the severity and type of CP, it affects different parts of the body.

Although CP is usually caused by brain damage during childbirth, it is often not diagnosed until the first or second year of a child’s life. This means it can be difficult for new parents to know how their child will be affected as they continue to grow.

Watch our short video to learn more about cerebral palsy.

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Learn more about cerebral palsy and what to do if you suspect your child’s condition could have been prevented. View Transcript.

Duration: 1 min 04 sec

Cerebral palsy is a condition that affects how some people move and learn. It's caused by damage to the developing brain before or after birth.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about one out of every 345 children in the United States has cerebral palsy.

Sometimes, cerebral palsy can happen because of a preventable mistake by a doctor or hospital during childbirth. This is called medical malpractice.

If you think your child has cerebral palsy because of medical malpractice, you might be able to pursue life-changing compensation for their treatment. An experienced birth injury lawyer can explain your rights and help get you the support you need.

You may have legal options if your child’s cerebral palsy was caused by medical malpractice. Connect with the team at Cerebral Palsy Guide today for a free, no-obligation case review.

Unfortunately, there is no cure for cerebral palsy, and it can bring long-term developmental disabilities, depending on how severe it is. The lifetime cost of caring for a child with cerebral palsy can exceed $1.6 million, which is far more than most families could have prepared for.

However, if your child’s condition was caused by medical malpractice, cerebral palsy financial assistance may be available to support a life as independent and fulfilling as possible.

If your child was diagnosed with CP, our team may be able to help you access compensation.

Find out if you qualify right now with a free case review.

Quick facts about cerebral palsy

  • Most cases of CP are due to brain damage before or during birth
  • CP is more common among boys than girls
  • Cerebral palsy affects Black children more than other races
  • Over half of children with CP can walk independently
  • About 40% of children with CP also have epilepsy
  • 75-85% of patients have spastic cerebral palsy, meaning muscles are stiff and movements are affected

Types of cerebral palsy

There are several types of cerebral palsy that are characterized by the location of the brain injury. Symptoms can vary depending on where and how badly the brain was damaged.

The types of cerebral palsy include:
  • Ataxic cerebral palsy: This type is caused by damage to the cerebellum, resulting in motor control and movement issues.
  • Athetoid/dyskinetic cerebral palsy: Caused by damage to the basal ganglia and/or cerebellum, this condition results in fluctuating muscle tone and involuntary movements.
  • Hypotonic CP: This rare type, also connected to cerebellum damage, is characterized by floppy muscles, excess flexibility, and poor mobility.
  • Spastic CP: The most common type of cerebral palsy, this is caused by damage to the motor cortex and characterized by tight muscles and jerking movements.
  • Mixed CP: Multiple areas of brain damage can lead to patients having more than one type of CP.

Doctors can perform tests to determine the type of CP a patient has. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), diagnosing the condition as early as possible is important for the child's well-being.

Was your child recently diagnosed with cerebral palsy? You may qualify for financial assistance. Get your free case review right now.

Cerebral palsy causes

The main cause of CP is damage to the fetal or infant brain. Although the exact cause of brain damage can be difficult to pinpoint, several factors are linked to the causes of cerebral palsy.

Common cerebral palsy causes and risk factors include:
  • Bacterial and viral infections such as meningitis
  • Bleeding inside the brain (intracranial hemorrhage)
  • Brain damage from periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)
  • Head injuries sustained during birth or within the first few years of life
  • Kernicterus (brain damage from severe jaundice that goes untreated)
  • Lack of oxygen to the brain (asphyxia) before, during, or after delivery
  • Low birthweight and premature birth
  • Multiple births, like twins, triplets, or more
  • Prenatal exposure to drugs or alcohol

Generally, if the brain is damaged within the first 5 years of life, it may not develop properly.

Damage to the parts of the brain that control motor function can cause children to struggle with muscle tone, posture, balance, and movement.

Cerebral palsy caused by medical negligence

Some children develop cerebral palsy as the result of a birth injury caused by medical malpractice. These CP cases stem from inadequate care from medical professionals during the birthing process.

Examples of medical negligence that can lead to cerebral palsy include:

  • Failing to detect and/or properly treat infections
  • Ignoring changes in fetal heart rate
  • Mismanaging a prolapsed umbilical cord (which can cut off oxygen to the baby)
  • Not performing a medically advisable cesarean section (C-section)
  • Using delivery tools improperly, such as vacuum extractors and forceps

Medical professionals are trained to provide high-quality care and make lightning-fast decisions to keep mothers and babies safe. Those who fail to do so should be held responsible for their actions. However, medical providers often downplay their role in causing harm or even deny it altogether.

Thankfully, trained professionals can help you understand what could have happened to your child. Cerebral Palsy Guide has labor and delivery nurses on staff with decades of combined experience.

If you suspect your child suffered a preventable birth injury, talk to one of our registered nurses right now.

Cerebral palsy symptoms

CP in babies can cause numerous physical and neurological symptoms that can greatly affect a child's development. Cerebral palsy symptoms can differ for each child, depending on the severity and location of the brain damage.

Physical symptoms

These involve muscle tone and coordination challenges, which can impact basic functions and mobility.

Physical symptoms of CP include:

  • Contractures (shortening of muscles)
  • Difficulties swallowing or sucking
  • Drooling
  • Exaggerated or jerky reflexes
  • Floppy muscle tone
  • Gastrointestinal problems (involving food digestion)
  • Incontinence (loss of bladder control)
  • Involuntary movements or tremors
  • Lack of coordination and balance
  • Problems with movement on one side of the body
  • Stiff muscles (spasticity)

Check with your child's pediatrician if they are experiencing any of these symptoms.

Neurological symptoms

These affect the brain and nervous system, leading to learning, communication, and sensory processing difficulties.

Neurological symptoms of CP include:

  • Buildup of pressure in the brain due to fluid imbalance (hydrocephalus)
  • Behavioral problems
  • Delayed motor skill development
  • Difficulty with speech and language (dysarthria)
  • Sensory impairments
  • Visual and hearing impairments

Parents and caregivers should monitor the timeline of their child’s developmental milestones, as babies with cerebral palsy may have developmental delays that go unnoticed.

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Cerebral palsy and coexisting conditions

Damage to the developing brain can cause an array of health complications that are not a direct result of CP. Therefore, babies with cerebral palsy may also experience coexisting conditions.

Conditions that may occur alongside cerebral palsy include:

Understanding and addressing these coexisting conditions is crucial for providing comprehensive care and improving overall well-being.

Cerebral palsy diagnosis

A person sits in a wheelchair outdoors on a porch.Although parents and caregivers may be the first to notice signs of cerebral palsy in infants, doctors often hesitate to make an immediate cerebral palsy diagnosis until further symptoms can be observed as the child grows.

Therefore, cerebral palsy is usually diagnosed anywhere between 18 months and 5 years of age. Often, imaging tests are used to look for brain damage.

Learn more about how CP is diagnosed below.

1. Developmental monitoring

This involves tracking a child's growth and development on an ongoing basis at well-child visits.

Developmental monitoring includes discussing any concerns with parents, reviewing the child's developmental history, and observing the child's movements.

2. Developmental screening

This type of screening involves short tests to check for developmental delays, such as motor or movement delays. These can be parent-completed questionnaires or tests administered by the doctor.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that developmental screening be performed at 9 months, 18 months, and 24 or 30 months.

Additional screenings can be done anytime concerns about a child's development arise.

3. Developmental and medical evaluations

These are detailed evaluations to diagnose specific developmental disorders, focusing on motor skills, muscle tone, reflexes, and posture.

Evaluations are conducted by cerebral palsy specialists like developmental pediatricians, child neurologists, or pediatric rehabilitation doctors.

Medical and imaging tests that can help to diagnose cerebral palsy include:

  • Computed tomography (CT) scans
  • Cranial ultrasounds
  • Electroencephalograms (EEG)
  • Genetic or metabolic testing
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans

A structured approach ensures thorough and accurate CP diagnosis tailored to each child's unique development.

Parents can begin managing their child’s condition and start any necessary treatment once a diagnosis is made.

Download our FREE Cerebral Palsy Guide to learn more about diagnosing and managing CP.

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  • Treatments and therapies
  • Financial support options
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Risk factors of cerebral palsy

There is no way to prevent a child from developing CP. That said, there are several measures that parents and doctors can take to reduce the risk.

Cerebral palsy risk factors

Several risk factors may put some children at a higher risk of developing cerebral palsy.

Routine doctor visits throughout pregnancy are crucial to managing cerebral palsy risk factors. Consistent check-ups can help detect issues and reduce the risk of complications.

Expectant mothers can also reduce the risks by:

  • Avoiding alcohol, cigarettes, recreational drugs, and prescription drugs that may result in complications during pregnancy
  • Controlling underlying health issues, such as blood pressure and diabetes
  • Getting routine vaccinations
  • Identifying any potential Rh incompatibility (difference in the presence of red blood cell proteins) between mother and child, which could lead to hemolytic anemia or jaundice
  • Protecting against exposure to infections or viruses known to impact fetal health (for example, German measles, cytomegalovirus, and Zika)

Medical staff are trained to monitor fetal vital signs and determine the safest delivery method. However, medical mistakes made during childbirth can lead to catastrophic injuries.

Our registered nurses are ready to help you understand if CP could have been prevented, offering the support and clarity you need.

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Cerebral palsy prognosis

A baby, dressed in a white onesie, has their heart listened to with a stethoscope.

A cerebral palsy prognosis predicts the long-term effects the condition may have on a child’s mobility, development, and overall quality of life. Doctors will make a prognosis by examining motor skills, reflexes, and developmental milestones.

In general, CP does not affect life expectancy. Adults with cerebral palsy can live fulfilling lives, but some factors may affect prognosis.

Factors affecting a CP prognosis include:

  • Difficulties with eating and swallowing
  • Impairments in vision, hearing, or speech
  • Intellectual disabilities
  • Mobility limitations
  • Musculoskeletal disorders
  • Respiratory disorders
  • Seizures

Physical symptoms and motor skills may improve or worsen over time, depending on how the condition is managed. Proper treatment of physical and neurological symptoms may improve prognosis and manage pain.

The American Academy of Pediatrics published a report examining data from over 1,300 studies of people with CP.

The report found that of people with CP:

  • 1 in 2 have some form of intellectual disability
  • 1 in 3 are unable to walk
  • 1 in 4 are unable to speak
ConditionsSee More Conditions
  • 1 in 3 have hip displacements
  • 1 in 4 have epilepsy
  • 1 in 4 have a behavioral disorder
  • 1 in 4 have bladder control problems
  • 1 in 10 are blind
  • 1 in 15 have to be tube-fed
  • 1 in 25 are deaf

If you believe your child may have CP, download our FREE Cerebral Palsy Guide to get the information you need.

Cerebral palsy treatment

While CP cannot be cured, a comprehensive cerebral palsy treatment approach can significantly enhance a child's quality of life. CP treatment focuses on nurturing a child’s abilities to reduce symptoms and encourage independence.

Infants diagnosed with cerebral palsy may benefit from early medical interventions to support brain growth and enhance motor functions. This early phase presents a critical window for potentially lessening some mobility-related challenges.

Actively treating the symptoms of CP is the best way to ensure a child's highest quality of life as they transition into adulthood. Your doctor will create a treatment plan tailored to your child's needs.

Find out more about different treatments for cerebral palsy below.

  • Medication
  • Therapy
  • Surgery
  • Assistive devices
  • Mobility aids

Medication

Cerebral palsy medication primarily focuses on managing symptoms, especially those related to muscle tone and movement difficulties.

Here are 8 common types of cerebral palsy medications:

1. Muscle relaxants to reduce muscle stiffness and spasticity

  • Baclofen (Lioresal)
  • Dantrolene (Dantrium)
  • Diazepam (Valium)
  • Tizanidine (Zanaflex)

2. Anticholinergics to control involuntary movements

  • Benztropine (Cogentin)
  • Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)

3. Botulinum toxin (Botox) that is injected to relax overactive muscles and reduce spasticity

4. Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is an implantable pump that delivers baclofen (muscle relaxant) directly to the spinal fluid offering continuous muscle spasticity control

5. Anticonvulsants for managing seizures

  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
  • Levetiracetam (Keppra)
  • Topiramate (Topamax)
  • Valproic acid (Depakene, Depakote)

6. Antireflux medications to manage gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD

  • Omeprazole (Prilosec)
  • Ranitidine (Zantac)

7. Stool softeners and laxatives for help with constipation due to reduced mobility

  • Docusate sodium (Colace)
  • Polyethylene glycol (Miralax)
  • Senna (Senokot)

8. Pain relievers to manage discomfort and pain

  • Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
  • Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)

Your child's doctor will prescribe the cerebral palsy medications most likely to help, tailored to their specific CP symptoms.

Therapy

There are many different therapy options to help treat cerebral palsy symptoms. Therapy can be used to improve mobility and brain cognition.

Four main types of cerebral palsy treatment are:

  1. Physical therapy relieves pain, reduces muscle stiffness, and enhances balance, coordination, and overall mobility. Physical therapists use specialized equipment to help your child move freely and live independently.
  2. Occupational therapy enables children with CP to master daily tasks and activities by developing fine motor skills and cognitive abilities.
  3. Speech therapy improves communication and language skills, fostering confidence in learning and socializing. It also assists children with eating and swallowing difficulties.
  4. Alternative therapy encourages children to focus on personal growth and navigate physical and mental challenges. It includes methods like hippotherapy (horse riding), music therapy, aquatic therapy, and acupuncture.

Most children with CP benefit from multiple therapies. A customized treatment plan can be created based on your child's symptoms.

Surgery

Cerebral palsy surgery may be recommended for children with severe mobility and muscle disorders. It can correct or improve issues with movement in the legs, ankles, feet, hips, wrists, and arms.

Cerebral palsy surgical options may involve:

  • Corrective surgery for muscle, tendon, and bone abnormalities
  • Interventions to enhance balance and coordination
  • Joint and tendon fixation corrections
  • Preventative measures for hip dislocation and spinal deformities
  • Procedures to treat spinal curvatures (scoliosis)
  • Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for reduced spasticity in limbs
  • Surgeries to correct foot deformity
  • Treatment of muscle contractures

Muscles, tendons, bones, and nerves are operated on to improve movement in different areas of the body.

Assistive devices

Specialized assistive devices can help individuals with CP who experience issues with communication, hearing, and vision.

Types of assistive devices for cerebral palsy include:

  • Cochlear implants to improve hearing
  • Computers and software for communication enhancement
  • Eye-tracking devices
  • Hearing aids and telephone amplifiers for clearer hearing
  • Picture books for visual communication aids
  • Vision aids like glasses, magnifiers, and large-print materials
  • Voice synthesizers for speech support
  • Writing and typing aids

Using assistive devices can greatly improve communication, mobility, and independence for people with cerebral palsy.

Mobility aids

Children with mobility limitations may benefit from assistive technology that can be adjusted to their individual needs. Mobility aids aim to help children with CP move freely in the world. They can greatly improve their quality of life and independence.

Types of cerebral palsy mobility aids include:

  • Canes and crutches
  • Lifts for shoes
  • Motorized wheelchairs
  • Orthotic devices for muscle balance and mobility
  • Power scooters
  • Rolling walkers for mobility support

Cerebral palsy treatment can be expensive. While insurance may cover some costs, it might not be enough for the comprehensive CP care your child needs.

Securing financial compensation through a cerebral palsy lawsuit can significantly ease the burden. This funding can ensure access to the best treatments available, support your child's development, and enhance their quality of life.

Get a free case review right now to find out if you may be eligible.

Research and advances in cerebral palsy treatment

The landscape of cerebral palsy treatment and research is continuously evolving, thanks to the dedicated efforts of institutions like the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).

Learn more about the latest advancements and ongoing research below.

Genetic research

By exploring the genetic factors behind CP, scientists are paving the way for personalized treatments and earlier diagnoses.

For instance, collecting and analyzing DNA samples can help to identify genetic causes and risk factors of CP.

Brain research

Investigations into brain development and injury offer new insights into preventing and treating cerebral palsy, enhancing our understanding of the condition.

Here are 2 types of brain research studies:

  1. Understanding brain damage: Investigating brain events in newborns, like bleeding and seizures, to develop drugs that prevent neurochemical damage
  2. Periventricular white matter damage: Examining how brain chemicals affect white matter development, which is a leading cause of CP

Stem cell therapy

Clinical trials are underway to test the safety of stem cell infusion in children with CP. The hope is that stem cells can repair damaged brain tissues.

Neuroimaging and biomarkers

Using cutting-edge imaging to predict CP in preterm infants and map brain function may allow for earlier diagnosis and personalized treatment.

Cooling therapy

Systemic hypothermia involves investigating the protective effects of medically cooling the body’s core temperature to treat brain injuries and potentially prevent CP.

Rehabilitative therapies

These play a crucial role in enhancing the lives of individuals with CP by focusing on improving mobility, strength, and daily functioning.

Here are examples of rehabilitative therapies for cerebral palsy:

  • Constraint-induced therapy (CIT): Studying the effects of intensive activity on improving motor skills in children with CP
  • Functional electrical stimulation (FES): Evaluating how electrical current therapy can strengthen muscles and improve mobility
  • Robotic therapy: Developing robotic therapies to enhance treadmill training and walking function

Treatment innovations

Emerging treatments are transforming the management of cerebral palsy symptoms, enhancing the quality of life for many with this condition.

Here are areas for new CP treatment research:

  • Botox: Ongoing studies to understand the long-term effects of Botox medication on bone health in children with CP
  • Vibration treatment: Researching the combined effects of Botox medication and vibration treatment on bone structure and muscle spasticity

These initiatives represent the forefront of CP research, offering hope for new treatments and improved quality of life for those affected by CP.

Living with cerebral palsy

CP presents unique challenges, but it also opens doors to a world of resilience, adaptability, and community support.

Individuals with cerebral palsy and their families navigate daily life with strength, discovering innovative ways to participate in activities, achieve personal goals, and contribute meaningfully to their communities.

Advances in medical treatments, therapy, and assistive technologies have significantly improved quality of life, enabling more independence and involvement.

A network of cerebral palsy resources, from specialized health care professionals to supportive online communities, empowers those affected by CP to lead fulfilling lives.

Embracing these resources and focusing on abilities rather than limitations fosters a positive outlook and a vibrant, engaging life experience.

Get help paying for your child’s treatment

Many families feel overwhelmed and unprepared to pay for the costs of care that come with raising a child with cerebral palsy. Thankfully, there are many options to help families pay for treatment costs and other expenses.

Cerebral palsy financial assistance is available to alleviate any burdens placed on your family so you can focus on getting quality care for your child. If you suspect your child’s CP could have been avoided, you may have a direct pathway to accessing the financial support your family needs and deserves.

Cerebral Palsy Guide partners with top lawyers and law firms who can help families in all 50 states. Together, they have recovered over $905 million for families affected by preventable birth injuries, including CP.

Call our trained patient advocates at (855) 220-1101 or get a free case review right now to find out your options.

Cerebral palsy FAQs

What is the main cause of cerebral palsy?

The main cause of cerebral palsy is trauma to the brain before, during, or shortly after childbirth. Brain damage can lead to several types of cerebral palsy, depending on the area of the brain that is affected.

In some instances, cerebral palsy is caused by medical negligence due to improper care during the birthing process.

What are the risk factors for cerebral palsy?

There are several risk factors before, during, and after pregnancy that can lead to cerebral palsy at birth.

Risk factors during pregnancy

  • Bacterial and viral infections
  • Exposure to toxins
  • Incompatible blood type between mother and fetus
  • Maternal health issues (bleeding, blood clotting, seizures, and thyroid problems)

Risk factors during labor and delivery

  • Breech birth (baby delivered feet or bottom first)
  • High birth weight (more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces)
  • Inability of the placenta to provide nutrients and oxygen
  • Improper use of delivery assistance tools (vacuum extractors or forceps)
  • Low birth weight (less than 5 pounds, 7.5 ounces)
  • Loss of oxygen to the infant brain (hypoxia)
  • Premature birth (child born before the start of the 37th week of pregnancy)

Risk factors after childbirth

  • Head trauma
  • Infections
  • Lack of oxygen (asphyxiation)
  • Severe jaundice (toxic high levels of bilirubin in the blood)
  • Vascular problems shortly after birth (stroke, blood clots, etc.)

How long can you live with cerebral palsy?

Individuals diagnosed with cerebral palsy have similar life expectancies to those who do not have the condition. Many people with cerebral palsy live long, happy, fulfilling lives.

Does cerebral palsy get worse with age?

Cerebral palsy is caused by irreversible brain damage and does not improve or worsen over time. However, some symptoms, such as joint pain, may increase with age.

Proper treatment and symptom management can help prevent uncomfortable symptoms during adulthood.

Is CP curable or not?

Unfortunately, there is no cure for cerebral palsy. However, many treatment options are available to treat symptoms, such as therapy, medication, surgery, assistive technology, and more.

Can you live a normal life with cerebral palsy?

Yes, many individuals with cerebral palsy lead fulfilling lives. Cerebral palsy affects movement and coordination. However, advancements in therapies, medical care, and assistive technologies enable those with CP to participate in various activities.

This includes pursuing education and careers and enjoying a quality of life similar to individuals without the condition. Support and resources are key to navigating these challenges.

What are signs of cerebral palsy in babies?

Although cerebral palsy is often not diagnosed until toddlerhood, there are several signs to look for that may indicate your child suffered brain damage.

Early signs of cerebral palsy include:

  • Abnormally extended neck and/or back when being lifted
  • Difficulty holding objects in their hand
  • Difficulty lifting their head on their own
  • Difficulty sitting, crawling, walking, or rolling over
  • Excessive drooling
  • Loose muscles
  • Stiff muscles

Can a child with cerebral palsy talk?

Yes, many children with cerebral palsy can talk. However, the ability to speak can vary widely, depending on the severity and type of cerebral palsy and any co-occurring conditions.

Speech therapy is often beneficial in improving communication skills, and alternative communication methods, such as sign language or communication devices, are available for those who face more significant challenges.

What should I do if I think my child has cerebral palsy?

It is important to consult with a cerebral palsy specialist as soon as possible if you think your child has cerebral palsy. Specialized doctors will be able to conduct tests to diagnose your child and create a treatment plan.

Getting diagnosed and starting treatment early can help improve cerebral palsy signs and symptoms in a timely manner and improve your child’s overall quality of life.

You can also call us at (855) 220-1101 to connect with one of our trusted and experienced registered nurses today. They will listen to your story and help you figure out the next steps regarding your child’s diagnosis.

Reviewed by:Katie Lavender, RN

Registered Nurse

  • Fact-Checked
  • Editor

Katie Lavender has over 8 years of experience as a Registered Nurse in postpartum mother/baby care. With hands-on experience in Labor and Delivery and a role as a Community Educator for newborn care, Katie is a staunch advocate for patient rights and education. As a Medical Reviewer, she is committed to ensuring accurate and trustworthy patient information.

Cerebral Palsy Guide was founded upon the goal of educating families about cerebral palsy, raising awareness, and providing support for children, parents, and caregivers affected by the condition. Our easy-to-use website offers simple, straightforward information that provides families with medical and legal solutions. We are devoted to helping parents and children access the tools they need to live a life full of happiness

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  2. CDC. (2022, May 2). Data and statistics for cerebral palsy. Retrieved April 16, 2024, from https://archive.cdc.gov/www_cdc_gov/ncbddd/cp/data.html
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  7. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2022, March 24). Rh incompatibility. Retrieved April 16, 2024, from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/rh-incompatibility
  8. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2023, November 28). Cerebral palsy. Retrieved April 16, 2024, from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/cerebral-palsy
  9. National Institutes of Health. (2020, September 28). About 14% of cerebral palsy cases may be tied to brain wiring genes. Retrieved April 16, 2024, from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/about-14-cerebral-palsy-cases-may-be-tied-brain-wiring-genes